The first large scale building projects seen in Ancient Egypt occurred during the reign of Pharaoh Khasekhemwy whose rule extended until 2686 BC. Khasekhemwy is known for a large mud brick structure at Hierakonpolis, a larger one at Abydos (also mud brick) and the Gisr el Mudir at Saqqara, which has a huge wall of roughly dressed stone.

Little is known about the next two rulers, Sanakhte and Nebka, even their existence as Pharaohs is uncertain. No major building projects are attributed to them.

With Pharaoh Djoser (Zoser) the Pyramid age began. Djoser ruled from 2668 to 2649 BC. During that time the high priest of Heliopolis was a man named Imhotep. Perhaps Imhotep gained access to secret writings from an earlier, now unknown, civilization. What is sure is that he introduced the Egyptians to building with dressed (squared) stone and many other innovations. Stone had only been used in small special locations previously.

The only structure known for certain to be built by Imhotep is Djoser's Step Pyramid at Saqqara. Perhaps Imhotep also designed the unfinished Pyramid complex of Sekhemkhet, the intricate stonework of the walls certainly shows his influence. The Djoser complex includes a number of buildings, a beautifully finished enclosure wall, and the Pyramid: 121 X 109 meters (397 X 358 feet), with a height of 60 meters (197 feet) - all covered with dressed stone.

Imhotep was later revered as the greatest architect, physician, scientist and wizard in Egyptian history. The Edwin Smith Papyrus is an Egyptian medical text attributed to Imhotep. The text provides a highly practical perspective on injuries, much like our modern understanding.

The tomb of Imhotep has not been found. It likely is located not far from Djoser's at Saqqara. This tomb may hold many answers regarding the origins of Egyptian science.

Archaeologists rarely consider the source of Imhotep's innovations. It could be argued, without much hyperbole, that modern civilization stems from what he revealed.

Earlier megalithic stone ruins are found on Malta, a Mediterranean island. The Maltese temple building culture has recently been dated to begin c.3700 BC, a full thousand years before Djoser. As far as is known, the people of Malta built only small temples, and they could not approach the superb accuracy of the Egyptians. Maltese temples used roughly dressed stones as large as 10 X 4 X 2 feet (3 X 1 X .6 meters). The building of megalithic temples in Malta ceased about 2500 BC, about the same time as giant stone works began to be erected in Egypt. (The stone work of Stonehenge in England is estimated to have been built c.2300-2400 BC, slightly later than the Pyramids, also with roughly dressed stones and less precision.)

Archaeologists believe the Step Pyramid was derived from the mastaba, a raised, long thin mud brick tomb. The conventional theory is that a pyramid is simply stacked mastabas. It could also be that the Egyptians adapted the Sumerian Ziggurat, a style that was popular in cities not very far away.

A much older ancestor has recently been unearthed in South Central Turkey. Gobekli Tepe is at least 9000 years old, and clearly is the remains of a highly developed civilization. Gobekli Tepe

After Djoser, the next 36 years saw a couple unfinished, smaller stone pyramids and a large brick one.

Sneferu became Pharaoh in 2613 BC. At about the same time engineering suddenly advanced again. Sneferu built three huge Pyramids, all of dressed stone. Perhaps each shows an improved design as archeologists believe, although other explanations are possible.

And then, in 2589 BC, Cheops (Khufu) began his rule and, soon after, his pyramid, a structure now known worldwide as the "Great" Pyramid.

From Djoser to Cheops - 2668 until 2589 BC - was 79 years. More or less, Old Kingdom dating is not accurate. In this short period there was the development of a technology that created a Pyramid that in size, alignment and precision outshines any other structure yet built by humans.

And then came decline. Subsequent fourth dynasty pyramids were a little smaller, a little less accurate. Soon the technology that appeared so suddenly was available no longer. Later dynasties built smaller pyramids with a stone outer casing filled with sand and loose stones. A facade of a pyramid is much easier to construct, and much more vulnerable to time. These pyramids today are little more than shapeless mounds. The last known Egyptian royal Pyramid was built around 1750 BC, in the 13th Dynasty.

Were the Pyramids tombs? Many who reject mainstream archeology's explanations have advanced various theories, but it seems likely that they were. The Gisa plateau is a huge cemetery, the Great Pyramid is surrounded with hundreds of burials from the time of Cheops. Coffers were found in all three principal Giza Pyramids that certainly resemble those used in burial. And significantly, if the Pyramids are not tombs then where were the fourth dynasty Pharaohs buried? No other structures of Pharaoic proportions have been found from this time.

In 2013 a trove of papyrus documents dating to the 27th year of Cheops' reign was discovered at the former Red Sea port of Wadi-al-Jarf. These are the oldest paper records yet found anywhere. Included were about two months of the log book of the foreman of a crew of about 200 men. For part of the year, during the Nile flood, they were engaged in transporting stone blocks for Cheops' pyramid by boat on the Nile.

It was an enormous effort to build the pyramids for the small, early bronze age population of the region. Over 20 million tons of stone was quarried, shipped, raised, dressed, and placed on the pyramids of the fourth dynasty and their surrounding structures. It would be difficult to find, in any time or place in human history, another such sustained effort by such a large portion of the populace.

Yes they were tombs, but they were more as well. The Pharaoh was the intermediary between the spiritual world and the physical, bringing fertility, and abundance to Egypt. His tomb, and the continuing service of the priests who daily offered ritual for him, were intended to perpetuate this flow of life force to the land. Perhaps that goal would be sufficient to motivate the population for the vast building projects that were the Pyramids.

We have a past far more interesting than we now believe it to be.

Here the reader has an option. The remainder of this page, after a chart of the principal Egyptian Pyramids, covers some of the truly extraordinary mathematical facts about the Great Pyramid and Egyptian science. For those to whom the beauty and spiritual power of Ancient Egypt are more interesting we have another large website full of stories and pictures of the range of Egyptian history. AscendingPassage.com features a library of first hand accounts of 40 different ancient temples and tombs covering the length of the Nile. There are ideas that challenge and expand upon conventional Egyptology and a vast collection of 19th century engravings, like the ones on this site, that evoke the magic of Ancient Egypt more fully than modern photographs.

by David Roberts, 1839.

of Old Kingdom Egypt

Name | Comments | Dates |
---|---|---|

Second Dynasty | ||

Khasekhemwy | Rhasekhemui? Last Pharaoh of Second Dynasty. Beginnings of Bronze age in Egypt. Probably built the Gisr el Mudir at Saqqara - A large enclosure of roughly dressed stone, precursor to the Pyramids. | ?-2686 BC |

Third Dynasty | ||

Djoser (Zoser) (Netjerikhet) | Commissioned the Step Pyramid at Saqqara designed by Imhotep, considered the first Pyramid. Pyramid size: 121 X 109 meters (397 X 358 feet), Height: 60 meters (197 feet) Oldest known large structure built of dressed stone. | 2668-2649 BC |

Sekhemkhet (Djoser Tati) | Unfinished pyramid at Saqqara. Pyramid size: 120 meters square (394 feet), Height: only 7 meters (23 feet) when construction was abandoned. | 2649-2643 BC |

Khaba | Probable owner of step Pyramid at Zawyet el-Aryan. Pyramid size: 84 meters (275 feet) square. Unfinished. | 2643-2637 BC |

Huni | Some believe he began the Pyramid at Meidum. Possible builder of a mud brick pyramid at Abu Roash, 215 meters (705 feet) square. (Condition is much deteriorated so height is uncertain.) Probable builder of a series of 10-17 meter tall mud brick Pyramids throughout Egypt. | 2637-2613 BC |

Fourth Dynasty | ||

Sneferu (Snofru) | Commissioned three large pyramids: | 2613-2589 BC |

Meidum (Maidum) The "Broken Pyramid" Pyramid size: 144 meters square (472 feet), Height: 92 meters (302 feet), Angle: 51 degrees, 50 minutes 35 seconds. Structure is partly collapsed. | (Sneferu) | |

Dashur The "Bent Pyramid" Pyramid size: 188 meters (617 feet) square, Height: 105 meters (344 feet), Angle (lower): 55 degrees, 0 min 30 sec, Angle (upper): 43 degrees, 01 min 30 sec. One subsidiary Pyramid. Limestone casing is mostly intact. | (Sneferu) | |

Dashur The "Red Pyramid" Pyramid size: 220 meters (722 feet) square, Height: 105 meters (344 feet), Angle: 43 degrees, 22 minutes. | (Sneferu) | |

Khufu | Greek form: CheopsThe "Great Pyramid" at Giza. Pyramid size: 230 meters square (755 feet), Height: 146 meters (479 feet), Angle: 51 degrees, 30 minutes 35 seconds. One subsidiary and three "Queens'" Pyramids. Five boat pits, two contained large cedar boats, one boat has been restored. | 2589-2566 BC |

Djedefra (Radjedef) |
Pyramid at Abu Roasch (Rawash) Pyramid size: 105 meters (344 feet) square, Height: Originally 68 meters (200 feet), Heavily mined for stone, only about ten meters remains. Angle: 60 degrees. One subsidiary Pyramid. Partial red granite casing remains. | 2566-2558 BC |

Khafre | Greek form: ChephrenCommissioned the second largest Pyramid at Giza Pyramid size: 214.5 meters (704 feet) square, Height: 143.5 meters (471 feet), Angle: 53 degrees, 7 minutes, 48 seconds. One subsidiary Pyramid. First course of casing is granite. Limestone casing remains intact near summit. | 2558-2532 BC |

Bikheris | uncertain, listed by Manetho. May have an unfinished pyramid at Zawyet el-Aryan. Pyramid size: 200 meters (656 feet) square. | time of rule is is uncertain. |

Menkaure | Greek form: MycerinusThe third Giza Pyramid Pyramid size: 105 meters (344 feet) square, Height: 65.5 meters (215 feet), Angle: 51 degrees, 20 minutes, 25 seconds. Three "Queens'" Pyramids. Lowest 16 courses of casing are granite. | 2532-2503 BC |

Shepseskare | Unfinished mastaba at Saqqara Mastaba size: 99 X 74 meters (325 X 243 feet), Height: (unknown). | 2503-2498 BC |

Note: There is much disagreement concerning this period of Ancient Egyptian history,

in particular the dates of rule of the kings.

sources: Pharaohs and dates - (mostly) Wikipedia

Pyramid information - "Cultural Atlas of Ancient Egypt"

by John Baines and Jaromir Malek

A full list of Egypt's pharaohs is at: Pharaoh (King) List.

by Ernst Weidenbach, 1840's

the Great Pyramid at Giza

Fine white limestone casing stones, now missing, 5 feet (1 1/2 meter) high, 12 feet (3 1/3 meters) long and 8 feet (2.4 meters) wide, some weighing 15 tons (13,000 kilograms), were fitted to enclose the entire structure, a surface area of about 22 acres (8.9 hectare). The sides of the casing stones where they abut their neighbors are filled with a mortar, the composition of which is still uncertain. These sides are so straight and square that the gap between them is 1/50 of an inch (.01 cm).

The mean variation of the surface of the casing stones from perfectly flat is 1/100 inch over 75 inches (.004 cm over almost 2 meters) as determined by W.F. Petrie from the few examples found at its' base. It is unknown but probable that this precision was continued through-out the 22 acres of Pyramid surface. (Sir William Flinders Petrie is considered the founder of modern scientific archeology. Mainstream archeology has a high regard for his measurements.)

The Great Pyramid's foundation of fine limestone blocks is within 7/8 inch (2 cm) of true level, and even that small inaccuracy could be the result of subsidence of a portion of the plateau due to the weight of the Pyramid or earthquakes.

There is a slight hollowing of all four sides of the Great Pyramid, which escaped notice until Petrie found it in his survey of 1881. The indentation is at its greatest on the northern side where the center of the face is set back 37 inches (94 cm). This perhaps was to make the monument stronger, to improve its' appearance, or perhaps some more esoteric reason. One certainty - if the hollowing was carried to the casing stones the difficulty of maintaining the extreme precision with which they were faced increases still further.

The first 150 feet (46 meters) of the descending passage, where it goes through the masonry of the Pyramid, is within 1/50 of an inch (.01 cm) of perfectly straight and the remaining 200 feet (60 meters), which is cut into natural rock, deviates only 1/4 inch (.4 cm). (Petrie)

Petrie determined that stone was cut by saws with blades about 9 feet (2.7 meters) long, with hard jewels such as diamond or corundum on the cutting tips. To drill out the interior of the sarcophagus (which is a single piece of very hard granite) a drill was used with a pressure of two tons, an extraordinary amount of pressure.

Archaeology estimates that the entire population of Memphis at the time was on the order of 50,000 people. Beyond them, the majority of the people were farmers, fewer of them than in later centuries. It is difficult to understand how this small labor force, without iron tools, built the pyramids with any of the methods conventional archaeology accepts.

The height to perimeter ratio is pi ( "π" ) (Smyth: 3.14159+) (Petrie: 3.1428+). This relationship is basic to this particular Pyramid form and no other. It establishes a direct relationship between the Pyramid and a half sphere - and thus with the Northern Hemisphere of our planet.

The faces of all pyramids are aligned to North, East, South and West. The alignment of the Great Pyramid deviates from true on two corners by three minutes, on one by thirty seconds and the fourth by only two seconds. While there are theories that account for the variance as intentional, as it stands the Great Pyramid is extraordinarily precise in its alignment.

Agatharchides of Cnidus was a guardian and philosopher in the court of the king of Egypt at the end of the second century BC. From sources available to him he reported that the base of the Great Pyramid was 1/8 minute of latitude. This has been proven correct by modern measurement to within a tenth of a percent.

The coordinates of the Great Pyramid are: 29°58.45.N by 31°08.03.E. This puts the Pyramid only about 2 km south from the 30th degree N latitude. Given the close accuracy of the monument in building and orientation, this must be intentional.

Science claims Eratosthenes of Cyrene invented the coordinate system in the 3rd century BC. He was not aware that the Egyptians preceded him by 2000 years.

"The Innocents Abroad" by Mark Twain, 1869.

The Great Pyramid does not stand in historical isolation. While the Great Pyramid is the largest, and by most accounts the most accurate, there has been little interest in the geometry and accuracy of the other Fourth Dynasty pyramids. Fifth Dynasty and later pyramids are more poorly built, less well preserved, making exact measurment difficult. It is likely that all the pyramids of this era contain mathematical principles and intentional relationships, perhaps including some important ideas that modern science is currently unaware of.

Egyptian temples were reflections of the gods that they served, using sacred geometry to evoke specific energies. Perhaps eventual research will find very specific explanations for the positions, size and angles of the other pyramids.

by Jean Gerome, 1895.

of the Egyptian Pyramids

Home Page

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Climbing the Great Pyramid

The Great Pyramid of Cheops

The Second Greatest Pyramid - Chephren

Valley Temple of Chephren

The Pyramid of Menkaure

The Great Sphinx

More About Giza

Before Giza:

The Pyramids at Saqqara

The Pyramids of Sneferu

The Greatest Mystery of All.

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of ancient Egypt in Ascending Passage,

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of architecture, art and mystery,

covering the length of Ancient Egypt and a bit beyond.

Ascending Passage

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